Contoh Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan - Degree of Comparison

Contoh Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan - Degree of Comparison


Pendahuluan

Pada materi sebelumnya, kita sudah membahas soal-soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression yang berkaitan dengan clause, baik itu Noun Clause, Adjective Clause, maupun Adverbial Clause. Hari ini, kita akan melanjutkan materi Structure and Written Expression dan membahas soal-soal yang berkaitan dengan Degree of Comparison. Sebelum masuk ke materi, sobat bisa mengerjakan beberapa contoh soal berikut ini.


Latihan Soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression



Soal Nomor 1

Mount Everest is ____________ mount in the world

(A) highest

(B) the highest

(C) most high

(D) most highest


Soal Nomor 2

Aluminum is _____________ than steel, and is widely used in car manufacturing

(A) as pliable

(B) very pliable

(C) more pliable

(D) the most pliable


Soal Nomor 3

Quitting a bad habit is not as ____________

(A) easy as it seems

(B) easy like it seems

(C) easy than it seems

(D) easy of what it seems


Soal Nomor 4

A journey by plane can ____________ than expected because the flight is delayed

(A) as much long

(B) be much longer

(C) feels much longer

(D) be the longest  


Soal Nomor 5

Saturn is _____________ the earth

(A) much bigger

(B) much more big

(C) much more big than

(D) much bigger than


Soal Nomor 6

Indonesia is a (A) country with (B) the second most highest (C) biodiversity in (D) the world


Soal Nomor 7

A football player who takes (A) a free-kick usually (B) has a (C) higher shooting accuracy to (D) any other players 


Soal Nomor 8

People who just (A) start working out can choose least (B) physically demanding (C) sport so they won't get (D) overwhelmed 


Soal Nomor 9

Some people become extremely (A) successful not only (B) because they are smarter, but also because they work more hard (C) than (D) others


Soal Nomor 10
Because of (A) its (B) beautiful nature and rich cultural heritage, Bali has become (C) one of the famousest (D) islands in the world


Pembahasan

Soal nomor satu berkaitan dengan aturan penggunaan superlative yang bermakna "paling". Perlu diingat bahwa superlative memiliki bentuk sebagai berikut:



the + (Adj+est) 👉 untuk kata dengan jumlah syllable kurang dari tiga, dan 


the + most + Adj 👉untuk kata dengan jumlah syllable minimal tiga



Kita tahu bahwa terdapat redundancy (penggunaan kata most dan Adjective dengan akhiran -est secara bersamaan) pada opsi (C) dan (D) sehingga dua opsi itu pasti salah. Opsi (A) sebenarnya hampir benar, hanya saja tidak terdapat determiner the yang harus ada dalam bentuk superlative. Jawaban yang paling tepat untuk contoh soal di atas adalah opsi (B). Kalimat tersebut secara lengkap ditulis sebagai berikut:

Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world   



Soal Nomor 3

Soal nomor tiga berkaitan dengan bentuk positive comparative yang memiliki struktur:


                                                as + Adj + as


Karena conjunction as pada bentuk positive comparative tidak bisa dikombinasikan dengan like, than maupun of, maka kita bisa langsung tahu bahwa jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal nomor tiga adalah opsi (A). Kalimat tersebut secara lengkap dapat ditulis sebagai berikut:


Quitting a bad habit is not as easy as it seems   


Soal Nomor 4

Pertanyaan nomor 4 berkaitan dengan bentuk comparative, dan hal ini bisa dilihat dari kata than yang ada di soal. Dengan demikian, kita tahu bahwa opsi (A) dan (D) pasti salah. Opsi (C) sebenarnya hampir benar, namun karena Modal can seharusnya diikuti oleh bentuk infinitive feel, bukan feels. Jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal tersebut adalah opsi (B). Secara lengkap, kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


A journey by plane can be much longer than expected because the flight is delayed    


Soal Nomor 5

Karena kata big hanya terdiri dari satu syllable, maka bentuk comparative-nya adalah bigger. Dengan demikian, kita tahu bahwa opsi (B) dan (C) pasti salah. Opsi (A) sebenarnya sudah hampir benar, namun bentuk comparative-nya tidak memiliki than. Jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal tersebut adalah (D). Kalimat pada soal secara lengkap ditulis sebagai berikut:


Saturn is much bigger than the earth    


Soal Nomor 6

Terdapat kesalahan gramatikal pada opsi (C). Karena kata high hanya terdiri dari satu syllable, maka bentuk superlative-nya adalah highest. Dengan demikian, penggunaan kata most menjadi sebuah redundancy. Kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


Indonesia is a country with the second highest biodiversity in the world  


Soal Nomor 7

Terdapat kesalahan gramatikal pada opsi (D). Bentuk comparative seharusnya menggunakan than, bukan to. Kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


A football player who takes a free-kick usually has a higher shooting accuracy than any other players  


Soal Nomor 8

Di soal nomor 8, terdapat kesalahan gramatikal yang berhubungan dengan penggunaan bentuk superlative. Seharusnya, bentuk superlative yang digunakan harus lengkap, sementara pada opsi (B), kata the yang seharusnya menjadi bagian dari superlative tidak ada. Seharusnya kalimat tersebut ditulis sebagai berikut:


People who just start working out can choose the least physically demanding sport so they won't get overwhelmed  


Soal Nomor 9

Kata hard hanya terdiri satu syllable sehingga bentuk comparative-nya adalah harder, bukan more hard. Dengan demikian, kita tahu bahwa kesalahan gramatikal ada di opsi (C). Kalimat tersebut seharusnya sebagai berikut:


Some people become extremely successful not only because they are smart, but also because they work harder than others  


Soal Nomor 10

Terdapat kesalahan gramatikal pada opsi (D), di mana bentuk superlative dari kata famous adalah the most famous, bukan famousest. Ada pengecualian bagi aturan degree of comparison dan jumlah syllable. Ada beberapa kata dengan jumlah syllable kurang dari tiga yang harus menggunakan more (comparative) dan most (superlative). Kata famous dan beberapa kata yang berakhiran dengan -ous masuk ke dalam aturan pengecualian ini. Kalimat pada soal tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


Because of its beautiful nature and rich cultural heritage, Bali has become one of the most famous island in the world  


Demikian materi, latihan dan pembahasan soal-soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression kali ini. Sobat bisa membaca artikel sebelumnya yang berkaitan dengan clauses pada soal-soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression. Jangan lupa untuk terus update dengan artikel kita, terutama bagi sobat yang sedang butuh banget ambil tes TOEFL tapi masih galau dengan grammar. Jika ada saran, kritik atau pertanyaan, langsung tulis saja di kolom komentar.


Thank you 💓


Untuk membaca artikel sebelumnya, silahkan ikuti tautan berikut ini:

Soal-soal TOEFL dan pembahasan

IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Talking about Society

IELTS Speaking Part 1, 2 and 3 - Talking about Society
Neighborhood


Today, we are going to discuss IELTS Speaking Section. There will be some sample questions and answers related to topic society. We will discuss part 1, 2 and 3 of the speaking test as well as some tips on how to do the IELTS speaking. We will also discuss some vocabularies related to the topic and some common grammatical mistakes in speaking. Okay, let's start with the first conversation.


IELTS Speaking Part 1 - Talking about Familiar Topics

Neighbors


How well do you know your neighbors?

I don't know them that well, actually. I spend most of my time working and do not really have much time to interact with people living next door, or across the street. Well, the majority of people who live in my neighborhood are working people who have family. They are busy during the day and would rather spend their time with family after work. We only talk when we have free time, like during the weekend. I often talk to a family living next door while they enjoy their free time on Saturday. The father usually washes his car or mow the lawn and we have a small talk. Sometimes I talk to their kids too, but they are kind of shy and not talking too much.


How often do you see them?

Not very often. As I said, both my neighbors and I are busy working. We only have small talk, on occasion, but that's just about it. 


What kind of problem do people usually have with their neighbors?

There are all kinds of problem that we may have with neighbors, but the most common ones would be noises and kids. My neighbors, who live across the street, have a little baby, and the baby often wakes up in the middle of the night. Sometimes, the crying baby also wakes me up at night. I don't mean to be an egoistic and intolerant neighbor or anything, but I have to wake up really early for work and I need get a good night sleep. Besides, I have been developing an insomnia lately, so a crying baby can definitely be a nuisance for people like me. Other than a crying baby, sometimes I see children play in the street. I scolded them once, but the parents didn't take it very nicely. I told them that they need to supervise their little children when playing outside, because they often play in the street without paying attention to the surrounding traffic. This is dangerous for both the children and drivers who happen to pass the street.


How do you think neighbors can help each other?

Neighbors can take care of each other. I often go on a business trip and my neighbors often help me with my cat. They like taking care of the cat while I'm away, and I think it is very nice of them to help me with my pet. Sometimes, I let my neighbors use my parking space when they have a guest, because I have a garage and never park in the drive way.


Have you ever invited your neighbors to your home?

No, not really. But I was invited to a dinner by a new neighbor living next door. She invited those who live next door and across the street for a dinner, she introduced herself to us, and we welcomed her to the neighborhood.


Do you think you are a good neighbor?

Not really, I seldom have the time to interact with my neighbors. I often come home in the middle of the night, and the light from motorcycle head lamp as well as the noises from the engine can wake up my neighbor's baby sometimes, which I feel bad about. I seldom attend events held in the neighborhood because I have works to do. I wish I could participate more in the such event and become a good member of the community.


IELTS Speaking Part 2 - Self-Presentation

Social Change



Describe an important social change that happens in your country

You should say:

What change is it?

How long has it happened/since when did it happen?

Why is it considered important?

Explain how it affects people in your country



What is it?

As an Indonesian, I feel like the economic and social condition is getting better recently. The majority of the people lived in poverty back then, and there was a very low living standard. There was also a gap between the rich and the poor, as wealth was not distributed evenly. Those who lived under the poverty line simply did not have access to education, health services, jobs, and other aspects of life that were needed to live with a good living standard, the least to ascend the social and economic ladder. The society has gone through a long process to become what it is today and I can say that people, in general, live a much better life these days, both socially and economically.


How long has it happened/since when did it happen?

This positive change started after the 1998  reformation. For 32 years, Indonesia was ruled by a dictator. Poverty was so pervasive, especially after economic crisis hit the country in 1998. Resources were owned by few elites within the government body or their private cronies. Corruption was a commonplace. This caused vertical conflict, as there was a skepticism, or even distrust to the ruling government. It also caused horizontal conflict between the haves and the poor, which resulted in some sort of hatred addressed towards the rich and non-natives. Sadly, all of these issues ended up being a bloody reformation in 1998, a painful process that claimed many lives of civilians, especially student protesters.

But there has been a lot of improvement since then. We now live in a democratic country where people have more freedom to express themselves. Transparency and independent judiciary system make sure that people are treated fairly. There is a healthy competition in business. So, life is much better than it was prior to the 1998 reformation. 


Why is it considered important?

Actually, there are some reasons why this change is very important to the people, but I'll give few examples. First of all, there was no free press and free speech prior to reformation. In fact, there wasn't much freedom of any sort because the authoritarian regime ruled the country with iron fist. Try criticizing them, and you will die tomorrow. Media was also pervasively censored to the point where it ended up being the mouthpiece of the government. There were a lot of human right violations those days, people were put in prison without trial, books that were considered dangerous were confiscated by the authority, activists were kidnapped. Well, in general, there wasn't that much civil rights prior to reformation era. This is why 1998 reformation becomes a very important turning point for the people of Indonesia.


Explain how it affects people in your country

The change has brought about some positive impacts. In terms of economic aspect, we can see that wealth is more evenly distributed these days, and this can be seen by the rapid growth of upper-middle class in Indonesia. 

Back then, power and wealth were so concentrated to the government and its cronies. Only people with influence and connection to the government can be successful in business. Now, we can see a lot of companies or startups that were built from scratch by an ordinary person. This has been made possible by a system that encourages entrepreneurship and allows the people to use their potentials and resources to thrive. I'm no expert in economics, but I personally believe that such improvement is only possible when there isn't too much intervention from the government. 


IELTS Speaking Part 3 - Discussion

Talking about social problems


What social problems are there in your country?

Recently, there are a lot of people getting laid off because of the economic impact of the global pandemic. These people have successfully ascended the socio-economic ladder, but now they are extremely anxious, not only about the possibility of second wave of covid19, but also the possibility of second wave poverty. Well, issues related to economy like poverty will eventually lead to social unrest if not handled properly. The high unemployment rate often becomes the reason why crime rate also increases, making the people feel unsafe. The pandemic also makes the low-income household becomes more vulnerable. When both parents are losing their job, it means that the entire family will have to cut expenses. In some cases, frustration resulted from such condition can lead to domestic violence that will definitely be detrimental to the children as well.


You mentioned about poverty. What can be done to alleviate poverty?

First of all, we have to deal with problems in our education system. People are suffering from poverty because they don't have the knowledge and skill needed to join the workforce. This is why we need more education and training. Other than education, there's got to be the spirit of entrepreneurship as well, because entrepreneurs provide jobs for those who need it. Actually, the government has successfully eradicated poverty for the past fifteen years or so, but with all this corona virus stuff going on, there is a possibility that they will have to go back to square one.


What do you think of social charity?

It is a good way of helping people who need medication, or those who suffer from natural disaster. There are a lot of charities in my country, we now even have online crowd funding platform. But, personally, I believe that charity is a way of helping other people, but it's not the ultimate solution for problems related to poverty. To deal with issues of a larger scope like poverty as well as social and economic gap, people will need empowerment more than everything. For example, when we see a young guy suffering from hunger, we can help him by giving him some food, or shelter, but we can't keep feeding that guy expecting him to be a good member of the society. At some point, we have to help him get a decent job so he can make his own living and become an independent, responsible and capable individual. Generally, people do not like being seen as a victim of poverty, or social inequality, what they want is a job that will help them stand on their own feet.


Can you tell me the difference between minor crimes and major crimes?

Of course. Murder is definitely a major crime, especially if it is a premediated murder. People can be charged with death penalty for such crime. But, there are also some differences for minor and major crimes criteria in every country and jurisdiction. For example, the possession of drug may be considered legal in some countries. Even if it is illegal, I think the punishment will not be as severe as here in my country. Here, those who are caught in possession of drug will definitely face imprisonment. In a very serious case like drug smuggling, someone can even get death penalty, so we can say that these drug-related crimes are taken very seriously here. Another crime that is considered as a major crime is terrorism, which is another crime that can result in death penalty. Any other criminal behaviors other than these three will probably fall under the category of minor crimes, or petty crimes.


Some countries have seen urbanization as a problem. Why do you think people are moving to cities?

People go to cities with a hope that they will get a better job, a better life. Some of them are really successful indeed, and such success often leads to a false belief that in order to succeed, one has to move to the city. Now, there are more and more people going to the city not having the educational background required to get a job, nor having any skill that will make them attractive to employers, and this is when the problem starts appearing. 

In cities, living standard is higher than in small towns, but everything is expensive. There are a lot jobs there, but there is a high level of competition as well. Those who cannot survive in the city may end up living in slum area, or becoming a beggar, or even street criminals. It is true that city is the center of trade and administration that offers more job opportunity for the people, but it can also be a harsh place for those who go there unprepared.


Can you explain how overpopulation affect urban society?

Indonesia is notoriously known for its centrality, especially in Java, one of the main islands here. While other regions outside the main island are underdeveloped, Java has become overpopulated. There have been some problems resulted from urbanization. Let's take capital city Jakarta as an example. Because of overpopulation, we can see how the city now deals with traffic, homelessness and crime rate. There are a lot of slum areas in Jakarta, which makes social disparity looks clearer more than ever. We can see a giant supermall or a fancy apartment located near a slum, which makes it iconic and ironic at the same time. There are also some environmental concerns related to overpopulation. For example, the city is finding it more and more difficult to manage its waste, which often leads to other problems such as water pollution and flood. Because of overpopulation, Jakarta is also experiencing a land subsidence at a rate of 1 to 15cm a year according to an expert. It is predicted that the city will sink in 2025 or 2050 if the problem related to overpopulation and centralization persist.  


We have read the sample answer questions and answers for the topic above. Now, let's discuss several aspects that we need to pay attention to when doing the IELTS Listening Section, and let's start with the vocabulary.


IELTS Speaking Section Vocabulary

In some rare cases of IELTS Speaking Section, we may have to deal with technical terms like those related to law. Remember that you can use the most common term possible, unless there's no other alternative for such term. For example, I used the term premediated murder, which may not sound that familiar to some people. Suppose you have never heard of this term before, then you can explain it with your own words. For instance, you can give a definition instead, and say: a murder that is committed intentionally, which is fine. There are some words that have synonyms like death penalty, which is sometimes called capital punishment, or death-sentence, or execution. In this case, you are free to choose which word you want to use, although it would be much better if you do not use it repetitively.


Grammatical Range and Accuracy

You may notice that I said: 

  • I'm no expert in economics...


This sentence may sound strange to you, and you may ask: Isn't it supposed to be:

  • I'm not an expert in economics?


Well, you're right. That sentence is not grammatically accurate, but it is commonly heard in real communication though, so this may (or may not) considered as a slip. In IELTS Speaking Section, sometimes you think very fast and you focus more on the communicative aspect instead of grammatical aspect. This is why slips occur. It's okay, you just have to make sure that you don't think too much of a grammar that you end up wasting your time and not answering the questions at all. But, you also have to avoid recurrent grammatical errors because it will definitely reduce your score for grammatical range and accuracy.

Speaking of grammatical range and accuracy, I will also suggest you to use various grammatical structure, as to not become too dull and repetitive. Try demonstrating your mastery of the English grammar. For example, you may notice that I said:


  • Now, there are more and more people going to the city not having the educational background required to get a job, nor having any skill that will make them attractive to employers...


Pay attention to the underlined words. Here, I am using present participle that functions as a adverbial clause. I also use coordinating conjunction nor. I did this to avoid using repetitive sentence structure. I could have said it this way:


  • Now, there are more and more people going to the city. They do not have educational background required to get a job or the skill that will make them attractive to employers... 


The sentence above is grammatically correct, but I have used the same sentence structure so I tried to say it in a different way.


Basic Knowledge

You may realize that society is a very difficult topic in IELTS Speaking Section, especially when we have to explain things like social disparity, or unequal wealth distribution, or the impact of urbanization on both rural and urban community. You don't have to be an expert to answer these questions, but you definitely need some basic knowledge to be able to do so. Try to read newspaper, watch news on television, be more up-to-date to current issues and try to know more about what's going on around you. You may have a good mastery of mastery of grammar and vocabulary, but if you don't have the basic knowledge related to the speaking topic, then you will find it hard to do the speaking test, and this is just bad.

IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Holiday and Tourism

 

IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Holiday and Tourism
Beautiful Street View




IETLS Speaking Section Part 1 - Talking about Familiar Topics

Tourism in You Country

Can you please tell me about your home country?

So, I'm from Indonesia. Indonesia is an archipelago country located in Southeast Asia. There are around 17.000 islands here, so the country is really huge in terms of landmass. Indonesia is also known as the country with the largest Muslim population in the world. Although the country is predominantly Muslim, there is a strong sense of multiculturalism here. People are coming from different ethnicities, they have different culture, they speak different regional languages and dialects, they embrace different religions. In fact, the motto of our country is Bhinneka Tunggal Ika. The phrase is originally from old Javanese, and it sort of means unity in diversity.


Are there a lot of foreign visitors in your country?

Yes. Many of these visitors come to Indonesia as a tourist, so they are here on a holiday. I've met some foreigners who came here for business, or to study in Indonesian universities, but I think they are here mostly for vacation. There are several places that become the heaven for tourists such as Bali, Lombok, or Jogjakarta. I suppose the most famous one would be Bali. It is known not only for the beautiful beaches but also for the culture.


What makes your country particularly interesting for the visitors?

There are a lot of interesting things in here, but the ones that attract a lot of tourists are natural beauty and culture. Some people may come to Indonesia to learn more about history or to enjoy culinary, but culture and nature are definitely the most common reasons for visiting in this country.


What kind of holiday activities you would recommend foreign tourists to enjoy?

Well, it depends on what they want to enjoy here. People who like sightseeing definitely want to go to places like Bali and Lombok. They have beautiful natural sceneries, especially beaches. For those who like cultural things, they can go to places like Jogjakarta or Bromo, in East Java. We can actually find cultural events in all parts of Indonesia, but I cannot explain all of them, since I haven't attended all of these events, just a few of them. Actually, it's not just the cultural event that may attract tourists. The culture also includes traditional houses, like the ones that we see in Sumatera, or traditional clothing like batik or tenun. People who like going to historical places may want to visit Borobudur or Prambanan Temple. The ones that I highly recommend is a visit to national parks. We have exotic animals and plants, like komodo dragons or Rafflesia Arnoldii. This holiday activity is highly recommended because people may not be able to see these rare species elsewhere. Rafflesia Arnoldii, for example, can only be found in the island of Sumatera and Borneo.


What impact that tourism brings to your country?

The most obvious one would be economic impact. Tourism becomes one of the main sources of income for the country, and it's not just national income. There are a lot of big industries that get benefit from tourism, like hotels, restaurants, and bars. Locals who sell food and souvenirs or become a tour guide can also get economic benefit from the tourists. 


Are there any negative impacts as well?

Of course, there will always be a downside of tourism, and this not only happens in my country, really. For example, many people express their concern about the environmental impact resulted from tourism. There are some social impacts too. Some tourist's behavior may not be in accordance with local tradition and custom, and this can be annoying at times. Of course not all tourists behave badly in here, there is just a small number of tourist that behave badly. I've seen some tourists got drunk and disorderly in the public, or ride a motorcycle not wearing a helmet.


IELTS Speaking Section Part 2 - Self-Presentation

An Interesting Place You Have Visited



Describe and interesting place you have ever visited

You should say

What place is it?

Why did you come to that place?

What did you do there?

Why do you think that place is interesting?




What place is it?

In 2015, I went to United States for a summer school program, and one of the most memorable part of the program is a visit to Philadelphia. Philadelphia has a vibrant history and a lot of historical landmarks, and I am the kind of who likes visiting historical sites. 


Why did you come that place?

I went there for a summer school program, in which we learned about American democracy. Well, learning the American history also becomes an important part of the program, and Philadelphia is a city that has a historical significance. 


What did you do there?

The program schedule was very tight, and there were a lot of things that I, and other participants had to do. In the morning we had a lecture on American history. In the afternoon we had a tour, then we got to discuss what we had learned from the lecture and the tour in the evening. During our visit to Philadelphia, we went to the Independence National Historical Park, African American Museum, and The Library Company. We even had a ghostly tour along the back streets and secret gardens of Philadelphia.


Why do you think that place is interesting?

I really like going to historical places, so the visit is definitely my favorite. There are a lot of beautiful old buildings, statues, and memorials. Some of these landmarks were built more than a hundred years ago so they have a historical significance. We get to know more about American history, and how the country had turned from a colony into a superpower country that it is today



IELTS Speaking Section Part 3 - Discussion

Do you like travelling in a group or by yourself?

I'd rather travel with others, because travelling alone will only enable you to capture memories of a place. When we travel with family or friends, we can also create a lasting memories with them.


In what season do you prefer to travel?

Well, most people would say that summer is the best season for holiday. There will be no rain, snow or storm that will force you to stay at the hotel. Summer is the perfect time for playing sports or sunbathing. But personally, I've always wanted to have a winter holiday. I live in a tropical country, so I have never seen a snow before. I want to try playing winter sport or just build a snowman.


What do you like to do when visiting a new place?

One thing that I always do when going to a new place, like when I'm travelling overseas, is buying books. Yes, it may sound strange to some people, because normally we will buy souvenirs like clothes or handcrafts when going to a new place. Well, I choose books because I'm a collector of old books. So, what I mean by buying books is like buying used books that are sold in small bookstores, not the new ones. Having a used book means that we also have the memories that live with it. I also like buying rare books, especially the ones that I won't be able to find in my country, either because the book is banned or yet to be translated. There's a sense of satisfaction when I can lay my hands on a book that cannot and should not be distributed because of censorship, not because I like controversy but because I like the freedom. We should always have a control of what we say, or what we do, but we should always have the freedom when it comes to thinking, imagining, enjoying artistic form and appreciating the beauty of a prose. There are constraints in form of norms, laws, or traditions but there shouldn't be any limit to what a human mind is capable of.


Do you think it is important to learn local language when travelling to other country?

Yes, it is. It's difficult to learn a new language and we don't have to be fluent in such language to enjoy travelling, but I think it is important to at least memorize some basic phrases like sorry, excuse me, thank you, and please. We may also find it hard to go around when visiting a new place so we need to learn how to ask direction as well. Other than that, learning a local language will help you build better connection with the local people. Locals appreciate our effort to learn their language because it is a sign that we not only want to have fun as a tourist but also to completely immerse in the community. 


Have you ever had a trip that made you feel disappointed?

Yes, although it was just for a moment. So, one day, I went to a small regency to make a documentary movie about cultural event held in an ancient temple. It was an assignment from one of my lecturers, actually. It was during a rainy season when my group went to film the event. We had planned to visit some museums and enjoy the local culinary on the day we arrived there, but it rained all day and we had to stay in our hotel, so we were pretty disappointed. Thankfully, the second day was sunny and we could film the whole event without worrying about the rain. We didn't get to enjoy the local attractions there on the first day but at least we could finish our assignment.

Contoh Soal dan Pembahasan TOEFL Structure and Written Expression - English Clauses

Contoh Soal dan Pembahasan TOEFL Structure and Written Expression



TOEFL Structure and Written Expression

Hari ini, kita akan kembali membahas materi Structure and Written Expression. Tidak seperti artikel yang sebelumnya, artikel ini akan berfokus pada soal-soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression yang berkaitan dengan klausa. 

Soal yang berkaitan dengan klausa sangat sering muncul di sub-tes Structure and Written Expression. Misal, dari 40 soal yang diujikan, bisa saja 9 di antaranya adalah soal yang berkaitan dengan klausa, atau bahkan lebih. Ini berarti bahwa hampir seperempat soal Structure and Written Expression berkaitan dengan aturan mengenai penggunaan klausa.  

Sobat mungkin bertanya-tanya, bagaimana bisa jenis soal yang berkaitan dengan klausa ini menjadi sangat dominan di sub-tes Structure and Written Expression. Penjelasan paling sederhana bagi pertanyaan ini adalah banyaknya variasi soal yang muncul dari aturan mengenai penggunaan klausa dalam Bahasa Inggris. Misal, klausa sendiri bisa dibagi menjadi klausa bebas dan klausas terikat. Klausa terikat mencakup Noun Clause, Adjective Clause dan Adverbial Clause. Lalu, ada juga aturan tentang Reduced Adjective Clause dan Reduced Adverbial Clause. Penggunaan bentuk klausa yang tereduksi ini berkaitan dengan bentuk kalimat aktif atau pasif yang pada akhirnya juga bisa menjadi variasi soal sendiri. Adverbial Clause memiliki banyak fungsi seperti menjelaskan hubungan sebab-akibat, menjelaskan pertentangan, dan lain sebagainya. Adjective Clause bisa saja menggunakan Relative Pronoun atau Conjunction. Conjunction dalam Adjective Clause harus sesuai dengan Subject (misal, Subject manusia harus menggunakan Conjunction who, whom atau that, bukan which). Belum lagi, penggunaan klausa juga tetap harus sesuai dengan aturan agreement (baik tenses maupun number). Dari uraian di atas saja sebenarnya sudah cukup jelas mengapa banyak sekali soal-soal yang berkaitan dengan klausa di sub-tes Structure and Written Expression. 

Karena jumlahnya yang cukup banyak, soal-soal yang berkaitan dengan klausa ini akan sangat menentukan skor kita nanti. Baik atau buruknya skor kita akan sangat ditentukan oleh pemahaman kita akan penggunaan klausa dalam Bahasa Inggris. Inilah alasan mengapa saya membuat satu artikel sendiri tentang soal-soal yang berkaitan dengan klausa. Baiklah, tanpa berlama-lama lagi, mari kita coba kerjakan beberapa soal berikut.


Soal Latihan TOEFL Structure and Written Expression



Soal Nomor 1

Solar eclipse occurs __________ between the earth and the sun and partially or fully blocks the sunlight

(A) when the moon passes 
(B) moon passes
(C) when moon passing
(D) it passes

Soal Nomor 2

Heavy machinery could be dangerous __________

(A) is not handled properly
(B) if not handling properly
(C) it is not handled properly
(D) if not handled properly

Soal Nomor 3

It should always be clear __________ is addressed

(A) whom a cover letter
(B) to whom a cover letter 
(C) whom a cover letter 
(D) to whom a cover letter

Soal Nomor 4

Parents do not always know __________

(A) what best is for their children
(B) it is best for their children
(C) what is best for their children
(D) which is best for their children
 
Soal Nomor 5

Indonesia is a tropical country ___________ near the equator line

(A) is located
(B) it is located
(C) located
(D) which located

Soal Nomor 6

During rush hours, there are a lot of people ____________ to the train station

(A) went
(B) going
(C) is going
(D) they are going

Soal Nomor 7

____________ and not flat has been proven scientifically

(A) That the earth is round
(B) Although the earth is round
(C) The earth is round
(D) Because the earth is round
 
Soal Nomor 8

John Milton is (A) an author which (B) first coined (C) the word pandemonium in 1667 (D)

Soal Nomor 9

We often feel (A) melancholic when listening (B) to a song playing (C) on (D) a violin

Soal Nomor 10

When (A) many of us play music digitally (B), some people are still (C) listening to (D) vinyl

Soal Nomor 11

People can sometimes (A) make a very bad (B) decision because of (C) they are under a lot of (D) pressure

Soal Nomor 12

People are getting bored (A) because they (B) do not know what they do (C) in their (D) free time

Soal Nomor 13

Optimism often becomes (B) the sole (B) reason why can we cope with (C) problems in life (D) 

Soal Nomor 14

When (A) an author is experiencing a writer's block (B) they (C) will do anything to find (D) inspiration

Soal Nomor 15

Hypothermia is a (A) medical emergency that occur (B) because our body (C) is exposed to extreme cold (D)

Soal Nomor 16

When (A) the traffic is very congested, going back (B) from work can be (C) longer than is expected (D)



Pembahasan Soal Latihan TOEFL Structure and Written Expression

Soal Nomor 1

Soal nomor satu adalah contoh soal yang berkaitan dengan Adverbial Clause. Karena klausa terikat mempersyaratkan adanya Conjunction, bisa kita pastikan bahwa opsi (B) dan (D) adalah opsi yang salah. Opsi (C) pada contoh soal tersebut juga kurang tepat karena present participle passing seharusnya digunakan untuk bentuk klausa yang tereduksi. Karena Subject the moon disertakan pada kalimat, tentu klausa seharusnya ditulis secara lengkap. Jawaban paling tepat bagi contoh soal nomor satu adalah opsi (A), di mana Adverbial Clause when the moon passes menjelaskan Verb occurs. Kalimat tersebut secara lengkap ditulis sebagai berikut:



Solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the earth and the sun and partially or fully blocks the sunlight (bentuk klausa lengkap) 



atau



Solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the earth and the sun and partially or fully blocks the sunlight (bentuk tereduksi) 




Soal Nomor 2

Ini adalah contoh soal yang berkaitan dengan aturan Reduced Adverbial Clause. Sebelumnya sudah saya jelaskan bahwa kalimat dengan klausa utama dan klausa terikat harus memiliki sebuah Conjunction atau Relative Pronoun. Untuk mempermudah pengerjaan soal nomor dua, kita bisa langsung mengeliminasi dua opsi yang pasti salah (opsi A dan opsi C) terlebih dahulu, yaitu opsi yang tidak memiliki Conjunction if. Opsi (B) pada contoh soal nomor dua juga kurang tepat karena present participle handling seharusnya digunakan untuk active voice, sementara contoh kalimat pada soal adalah passive voice. Seharusnya, past participle lah yang digunakan. Dengan demikian, jawaban yang paling tepat bagi soal nomor dua adalah opsi (D). Kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:
 


Heavy machinery could be dangerous if not handled properly ✔ (bentuk tereduksi)


atau


Heavy machinery could be dangerous if it is not handled properly ✔ (bentuk klausa lengkap)



Soal Nomor 3

Soal nomor tiga adalah tipe soal Preposition + WH Clause, salah satu jenis soal yang sering dianggap tricky oleh sebagian besar orang. Karena harus ada Preposition sebelum WH Clause, kita tahu bahwa opsi (A) dan (C) pasti salah. Soal ini juga berkaitan dengan penggunaan Relative Pronoun whom. Perlu kita ingat bahwa whom selalu merujuk pada Object kalimat, sedangkan who selalu merujuk pada Subject kalimat. Karena yang dirujuk pada soal adalah Object kalimat, maka jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal nomor tiga adalah opsi (D). Kalimat tersebut secara lengkap ditulis sebagai berikut:


It should always be clear to whom a cover letter is addressed 




Soal Nomor 4

Soal nomor empat berkaitan dengan penggunaan Noun Clause sebagai Object kalimat (ingat bahwa selain sebagai Object, Noun Clause juga dapat menempati posisi Subject kalimat). Contoh kalimat pada soal di atas membutuhkan sebuah Direct Object dalam bentuk Noun Clause, sehingga kita tahu bahwa opsi (B) dan (D) pasti salah. Klausa pada opsi (B) adalah sebuah independent clause, sedangkan klausa yang ada pada opsi (D) adalah Adjective Clause. Opsi (A) kurang tepat karena posisi copula is dan Predicative Adjective-nya terbalik. Jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal di atas adalah opsi (C). Kalimat tersebut secara lengkap ditulis sebagai berikut:


Parents do not always know what is best for their children 





Soal Nomor 5

Soal nomor lima berkaitan dengan aturan Reduced Adjective Clause. Karena dependent clause harus memiliki Relative Pronoun atau Conjunction, kita bisa langsung menebak bahwa opsi (A) dan (B) pasti salah. Satu hal yang juga harus kita perhatikan pada kalimat tersebut adalah penggunaan past participle located yang mengindikasikan bahwa kalimat tersebut adalah passive voice. Opsi (D) kurang tepat karena seharusnya ditulis lengkap dengan Auxiliary-nya agar menjadi which is located. Dengan demikian, jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal di atas adalah opsi (C). Kalimat tersebut secara lengkap dapat ditulis sebagai berikut:




Indonesia is a tropical country located near the equator line (bentuk tereduksi) 



atau 


Indonesia is a tropical country which is located near the equator line (bentuk klausa lengkap) 




Soal Nomor 6

Contoh soal nomor 6 sebenarnya hampir sama dengan contoh soal nomor 5. Hanya saja, kalimat pada contoh soal nomor 5 ini adalah kalimat aktif sehingga bentuk tereduksinya akan menggunakan present participle. Jika kita perhatikan, baik opsi (A), (C) maupun (D) sama sekali tidak memenuhi kriteria untuk menjadi klausa terikat, baik yang bentuknya lengkap atau pun bentuk klausa yang tereduksi. Jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal ini adalah opsi (B). Kalimat pada contoh soal tersebut secara lengkap dapat ditulis sebagai berikut:



During rush hours, there are a lot of people going to the train station (bentuk tereduksi)  



atau



During rush hours, there are a lot of people who are going to the train station (bentuk klausa lengkap)  




Soal Nomor 7

Pada contoh soal sebelumnya, kita sudah belajar bagaimana sebuah Noun Clause dapat menempati posisi Object pada kalimat. Contoh soal nomor tujuh berkaitan dengan penggunaan Noun Clause sebagai Subject kalimat. Biasanya, Noun Clause ini memiliki Conjunction that. Karena sebuah Adverbial Clause tidak dapat menempati posisi Subject kalimat, kita tahu bahwa opsi (B) dan (D) pasti salah. Karena opsi (C) tidak memiliki Relative Pronoun maupun Conjunction, maka tidak memenuhi kriteria sebagai Subordinate Clause dan dengan demikian juga salah. Jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal di atas adalah opsi (A), di mana Noun Clause That the earth is round menjadi Subject bagi kalimat. Kalimat tersebut secara lengkap dapat ditulis sebagai berikut:



That the earth is round and not flat has been proven scientifically  




Soal Nomor 8

Soal nomor delapan berkaitan dengan penggunaan Conjunction. Perlu diingat bahwa Conjunction which hanya bisa digunakan untuk benda selain manusia. Karena John Milton adalah manusia, maka kita bisa langsung tahu bahwa opsi (B) kurang tepat. Seharusnya, Conjunction who lah yang digunakan, agar kalimat menjadi seperti berikut:



John Milton is an author who first coined the word pandemonium in 1667  




Soal Nomor 9

Soal nomor sembilan berkaitan dengan aturan penggunaan Present Participle dan Past Participle pada Reduced Adjective Clause. Pada contoh kalimat di soal, seharusnya Past Participle played lah yang digunakan, karena kalimat berbentuk passive voice. Kalimat tersebut dapat dikoreksi sebagai berikut:



We often feel melancholic when listening to a song played on a violin  



Jika diterjemahkan ke Bahasa Indonesia, kalimat tersebut akan menjadi:

Kita sering merasa melankolis saat mendengarkan lagu yang dimainkan dengan biola

Catatan: Perhatikan kata yang bercetak tebal. Awalan "di" mengindikasikan bahwa klausa memiliki bentuk passive voice. Jika sobat salah menggunakan present participle playing, maka terjemahan kalimat tersebut akan menjadi:

Kita sering merasa melankolis saat mendengarkan lagu yang memainkan dengan biola

Jadi aneh kan artinya? Inilah yang akan terjadi bila kita salah mereduksi klausa kata sifat. Dengan demikian, jawaban yang paling tepat bagi soal nomor sembilan adalah opsi (C).


Soal Nomor 10

Soal nomor sepuluh berkaitan dengan penggunaan Conjunction pada sebuah Adverbial Clause. Sebelumnya sudah dijelaskan bahwa Adverbial Clause dapat menjelaskan hubungan pertentangan. Pada contoh soal, terdapat kesalahan gramatikal pada opsi (A). Kalimat tersebut memiliki hubungan pertentangan, dan menjelaskan bahwa sementara beberapa orang sudah mendengar musik secara digital, masih ada beberapa orang yang memainkan musik di piringan vynil. Seharusnya, Conjunction while yang digunakan, bukan when. Kalimat tersebut dapat dikoreksi seperti berikut:



While many of us play music digitally, some people are still listening to vinyl 




Soal Nomor 11

Contoh soal nomor sebelas berkaitan dengan penggunaan Preposition dan Conjunction yang cukup membingungkan bagi sebagian orang. Sobat mungkin pernah merasa ragu-ragu saat akan menggunakan kata because dan because of, karena keduanya sekilas terlihat sama. Nyatanya, because of adalah sebuah Preposition dan because adalah sebuah Conjunction, dan penggunaannya dalam sebuah kalimat pun juga berbeda. Preposition because of tidak bisa diikuti oleh sebuah klausa (kecuali Noun Clause). Dengan demikian, kita tahu bahwa opsi (C) mengandung kesalahan gramatikal. Seharusnya, kalimat tersebut ditulis seperti berikut:
 


People can sometimes make a very bad decision because they are under a lot of pressure 



Soal Nomor 12

Soal Nomor dua belas berkaitan dengan bentuk Noun Clause yang tereduksi menjadi bentuk to infinitive. Opsi (C) mengandung kesalahan gramatikal, karena kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:



People are getting bored because they do not know what to do in their free time 



Soal Nomor 13

Soal nomor tiga belas berkaitan dengan klausa terikat yang tidak boleh memiliki bentuk interrogative atau kalimat tanya. Sebuah klausa harus selalu berbentuk kalimat pernyataan. Pada soal, terdapat kesalahan gramatikal pada opsi (C), karena Adjective Clause yang seharusnya berbentuk kalimat pernyataan malah ditulis layaknya kalimat pertanyaan. Untuk memperbaiki kalimat tersebut, kita tinggal membalik posisi Modal can dan Subject we agar kalimat menjadi seperti berikut: 



Optimism often becomes the sole reason why we can cope with problems in life 




Soal Nomor 14

Contoh soal nomor empat belas adalah salah satu jenis soal yang sangat tricky bagi banyak orang. Jika dilihat sekilas memang kalimat tersebut terlihat sudah benar, namun ada satu kesalahan kecil pada opsi (B). Perlu diingat bahwa ketika suatu klausa terikat diletakkan di awal kalimat, maka harus ada koma yang memisahkannya dengan klausa utama. Untuk memperbaiki kalimat tersebut, kita tinggal menambahkan koma setelah kata block, agar kalimat tersebut menjadi seperti berikut:



When an author is experiencing a writer's block, they will do anything to find inspiration 




Soal Nomor 15

Soal nomor lima belas berkaitan dengan agreement antara sebuah Noun atau Noun Phrase serta Adjective Clause yang mengikutinya. Pada contoh soal, terdapat kesalahan gramatikal pada opsi (B). Karena Noun Phrase a medical emergency merupakan singular Noun, seharusnya kata occur dibubuhi imbuhan s agar kalimat tersebut menjadi seperti berikut:



Hypothermia is a medical emergency that occurs because our body is exposed to extreme cold 




Soal Nomor 16

Soal nomor enam belas adalah contoh bentuk Noun Clause yang tereduksi. Perlu diingat bahwa Noun Clause juga bisa direduksi ke dalam bentuk infinitive, gerund, maupun past participle. Pada contoh soal, terdapat kesalahan gramatikal pada opsi (D). Karena Noun Clause merupakan bentuk tereduksi, seharusnya Auxiliary is tidak perlu disertakan, agar kalimat menjadi seperti berikut:


When the traffic is very congestedgoing back from work can be longer than expected 



Nah, demikianlah contoh materi soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression serta pembahasannya kali ini. Bagaimana? Mudah bukan? Meski banyak yang beranggapan bahwa soal Structure and Written Expression itu sulit, sebenarnya kita tetap bisa menyiasati hal tersebut dengan banyak belajar dan berlatih. Maka dari itu, pastikan sobat tetap mengikuti kelanjutan artikel TOEFL Complete Course ini ya, biar bisa mendapat skor maksimal saat mengambil tes TOEFL nanti.

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