IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Talking about Dreams

IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Talking about Dreams
Sweet Dream, baby



IELTS Speaking Section Part 1 - Talking about Familiar Topics

Dreams

Let's talk about night time dreams


Do you dream a lot when you're asleep?

No, I don't. I usually dream when I feel tired, and it is usually a strange dream that I have, so strange that I simply forget the dream when I get up. I have bad dreams, occasionally, but it is not that bad as to keep me awake at night. Most of the time I would just brush it off and go back to sleep. 


Do you remember those dreams?

Only some of them, usually the weirdest ones or the most vivid ones. One day I was dreaming about winning a sport bike and I tried riding it. The dream felt so real, I mean the excitement was real, the riding sensation was real, but then I woke up and had to go back to reality. I also remember the worst dreams that I had, like when I dreamt of being chased by snakes, a lot of snakes. I literally jolted up and began searching the entire room, afraid that those snakes were actually real. Thank God it was just a dream.


Can we learn anything from our dreams?

I suppose we can. In the case of a dream where I was chased by snakes, we should learn to be more careful and cautious. I don't know what triggered the dream in the first place, but I assumed it was because I got too tired. For me personally, having a weird dream often becomes an indication that I have to lighten up a little bit. May be I am too tired, physically, mentally, or both.


Is it common for people in your country to talk about their dreams?

Yes, because people always try to make sense of their dreams by relating them to what had happened or what will happen in real life. People who believe in superstition may come to those with supernatural power or whatever, just to find out the meaning of their dreams. I discussed one of my dream with my roommate one day, just because he appeared in that dream and he talked funny, so I just made some stupid jokes about it. 


Can dreams become a reality?

Sometimes it can. For example, I had a weird dream about me talking to some of my friends about going on a vacation in a villa. We were going to do the usual stuff there, having a barbeque, playing billiard, going to the nearest waterfall, staying up late to watch  movie and just having fun, basically. When I woke up, I didn't think much of it and soon, I forgot what I dreamt about the night before. But few days later, my friends were inviting me to go vacationing in a villa, and then I was reminded of my dream. In that dream, I wore the same clothes, sit in the exact same position as I did when talking to my friend, and remembered one of my friend's facial expression, in a very great detail. I couldn't help but saying 'This is exactly what happened in my dream' and my friends looked at me perplexed, not having any idea of what I meant. I don't know if it was merely a coincidence or if it can be explained logically. I heard that some other people have that kind of dream, a dream that strangely becomes a reality. 



IELTS Speaking Section Part 2 - Self-Presentation

Remembering Dreams




Describe one of your dreams that you still remember


You should say:

What was it about?


When did you have it?


Why do you still remember that particular dream?


How do you feel about that dream?




What was it about?

One of the dreams that I still remember until now is a strange dream about mangosteen. I remember getting sick when I was a child, so I didn't go to school and just slept all day. I had a very vivid dream where my mother gave me some mangosteen. She said that she knew I was sick and needed something fresh to eat, because I was a little bit nauseated. So, she gave me those mangosteen, and I remember putting them near my pillow so I could eat them later, because I was very sleepy. When I woke up, the mangosteen were gone. I searched the entire house looking for them, thinking that someone had put them in the fridge. But I couldn't find them in the fridge either. When my mom went back from work, I asked her where my mangosteen were. Obviously, my mother was confused as she didn't remember giving anything to me that day, except my lunch and medication. She told me that it might be just a dream. I was so convinced that she really did give me the mangosteen and kept insisting that I had to have them. I was basically upset about not having the mangosteen, whether it was a dream or not. 


When did you have it?

I had this strange mangosteen dream a long time ago, when I was a child. I remember I was still in elementary school when I had this dream.


Why do you still remember that particular dream?

I still remember this dream because it is very vivid. If I dream about seeing a ghost or being attacked by a monster, I will soon realize that it is just a dream, because it makes no sense at all. But this dream looked so vivid because I see myself there doing things that I normally do. I always want to eat fresh fruit when I am not feeling well and my mother is well aware of that. The fact that I dreamt about her giving me some fruit to eat when I was sick didn't look strange at all at that time. This is probably why I misunderstood it as a reality.


How do you feel about that dream?

As I said, I was very upset of not having the mangosteen. I still am, actually. When I was sick, I had to be able to get whatever I wanted, and it's always something simple like fresh fruit, hot tea, or food that I chose randomly. The fact that I wanted something simple like mangosteen and not being able to have it really made me unhappy as a kid.



IELTS Speaking Section Part 3 - Discussion

The Meaning of Dreams


Do dreams have meaning?

Yes, they do. Personally, I see dream as a sign of extreme exhaustion or health problem, because I always have weird dreams when I'm sick or tired. There is a belief among the people that certain dream has meaning, some sort of a sign of what will happen in the future. For example, when we dream about being chased by snakes and escaping from their bites, it means that we just escape from a dangerous situation like accident or sickness. I don't know if this is true or not. I myself have dreamt about being chased by snakes a couple times, but then nothing did happen and my life just went on as usual.


Can dreams affect someone's health? (and how)

Dreams can definitely affect someone's health especially when it is a bad dream. People who have recurrent bad dreams often find it hard to go back to sleep, so they may suffer sleep deprivation. I had a sleep paralysis occasionally and it is really hard to fall back to sleep because my mind keeps thinking about the horrible creature that I saw earlier in my dream. I know that creature isn't real, but the fear of not being able to move or breath properly while sleeping is extremely unsettling.


Can dream be explained scientifically?

I'm sure it can. I remember reading an article about Jung's theory about dreams, stating that our dreams have psychological significance. I can't provide more details about the theory though, but I firmly believe that dream is a phenomenon that can be explained by science. 


Can dreams really make people do things?

I'm not really sure, but I think it might be true in the case of people who are mentally unstable. They may confuse dream with reality and do something unexpected. I heard a story about a guy who almost jumped out of a second floor window because he dreamt about a ghost running after him. Of course, there's no such ghost and he just dreamt about it. He was then treated and got better after taking some medications. So, I guess dreams can make people do things, sometimes crazy things, if they cannot go back to reality and haunted by their own dream.


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Contoh Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan - Determiners

Contoh Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan - Determiners


Pada materi sebelumnya, kita sudah membahas beberapa contoh soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression yang berkaitan dengan Degree of Comparison. Hari ini, kita akan membahas soal-soal yang berkaitan dengan penggunaan Determiners. Sebelum kita masuk ke materi tentang determiners, silahkan kerjakan latihan berikut:


Contoh Soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression


Soal Nomor 1

Even the most random thing that comes to our mind could sometimes be _____________

(A) brilliant idea

(B) a seemingly brilliant idea

(C) seemingly brilliant idea

(D) seemingly a brilliant idea


Soal Nomor 2

Bears are very protective of _____________

(A) its cubs

(B) their cubs

(C) it's cubs

(D) theirs cubs


Soal Nomor 3

Some people manage to keep in a good shape although _____________ food

(A) eat much

(B) they eat many food

(C) eat a lot of food

(D) they eat much food


Soal Nomor 4

One has to pass both aptitude test and physical examination to join _____________

(A) army

(B) in army

(C) the army

(D) in the army


Soal Nomor 5

Because of the development of technology and internet, only ______________ use a phone book these days

(A) few people

(B) a few people

(C) little people

(D) a little people


Soal Nomor 6

Some people with (A) a decent job and income do not have saving (B) because they spend many (C) money on basic necessities (D) like food and housing


Soal Nomor 7

There are several (A) things that we need to consider (B) when buying product (C), such as quality, functionality, price, and durability (D)


Soal Nomor 8

When reminiscing (A) about the good old days with friends and family, people can feel nostalgic (B) and find it hard (C) to erase that memories (D)


Soal Nomor 9

A (A) honorary degree is given to those (B) who have given major contribution (C) to certain field or to the society (D) in general.


Soal Nomor 10

It (A) is believed that all (B) languages that we know today originate (C) from an universal (D) language



Pembahasan

Mari kita mulai pembahasan soal-soal di atas. Materi tentang penggunaan Determiner akan saya selipkan di setiap pembahasan agar lebih mudah dimengerti dan dipraktekkan.


Soal Nomor 1

Soal nomor satu berkaitan dengan penggunaan indefinite article "a" yang digunakan bersamaan dengan singular countable Noun "idea". Perlu diingat bahwa sebuah benda berjumlah satu harus selalu diiringi dengan article a, an, atau Determiner/Adjective single, each, dan every. Dari penjelasan di atas, kita tahu bahwa opsi (A) dan (C) pasti salah. Opsi (D) sebenarnya sudah hampir benar, namun posisi Adverb dan Determiner terbalik. Sebuah Adverb yang seharusnya menjadi modifier bagi Adjective "brilliant" tidak bisa mendahului Determiner "a", karena tetap harus mengikuti struktur umum Noun Phrase Det + Adj + N, atau Det + Adv + Adj + N dalam kasus ini. Jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal nomor satu adalah opsi (B), dan kalimat seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


  • Even the most random thing that comes to our mind could sometimes be a seemingly brilliant idea


Soal Nomor 2

Soal nomor dua berkaitan dengan penggunaan Possessive Determiner. Karena kata "it's" dan "theirs" pada opsi (C) dan (D) bukanlah sebuah Possessive Determiner, maka kita bisa langsung mengeliminasi dua jawaban tersebut. Sebenarnya, opsi (A) sudah hampir benar, karena "its" adalah sebuah Possessive Determiner. Meski demikian, perlu diperhatikan bahwa penggunaan Possessive Determiner harus bersesuaian dengan antecedent-nya. Karena Subject kalimat adalah plural countable Noun "bears", maka kata its kurang tepat digunakan. Jawaban paling tepat bagi contoh soal di atas adalah opsi (B), dan kalimat secara lengkap dapat ditulis sebagai berikut:

  • Bears are very protective of their cubs 


Soal Nomor 3

Soal nomor tiga berkaitan dengan penggunaan Quantifier much dan many. Perlu diingat bahwa "food" masuk ke dalam kategori uncountable Noun, sehingga Quantifier yang menyertainya juga harus bersesuaian. Karena Quantifier many seharusnya digunakan bersamaan dengan countable Noun, maka kita tahu bahwa opsi (B) pasti salah. Kita juga bisa langsung tahu bahwa opsi (A) dan (C) pasti salah karena tidak ada Subject yang harusnya melengkapi Adverbial Clause yang ada. Dengan demikian, jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal tersebut adalah opsi (D), dan kalimat secara lengkap dapat ditulis sebagai berikut:

  • Some people manage to keep in a good shape although they eat much food 


Soal Nomor 4

Soal nomor empat berkaitan dengan penggunaan definite Article "the" yang digunakan untuk proper Noun, benda-benda yang sangat spesifik, atau benda-benda yang sudah jelas berdasarkan antecedent-nya. Definite Article juga digunakan pada beberapa kasus collective Noun seperti kata "army". Opsi (A) dan (B) sudah pasti salah karena tidak terdapat definite Article, sementara opsi (D) sudah hampir benar, tapi kata join pada soal masuk ke dalam trasitive Verb yang langsung diikuti oleh direct Object, sehingga jawaban yang paling tepat adalah opsi (C). Kalimat secara lengkap ditulis sebagai berikut:

  • One has to pass both aptitude test and physical examination to join the army 


Soal Nomor 5

Soal nomor lima berkaitan dengan penggunaan Determiner untuk countable Noun dan uncountable Noun, dan secara lebih spesifik merujuk pada Quantifier few, a few, little dan a little. Karena "people" masuk ke dalam plural countable Noun, kita bisa langsung tahu bahwa opsi (C) dan (D) salah. Opsi (B) sudah hampir benar, namun dari konteks kalimat kita tahu bahwa sekarang ini sedikit sekali orang menggunakan buku telepon karena perkembangan teknologi, sehingga jawaban yang lebih tepat adalah (A). Kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


  • Because of the development of technology and internet, only few people use a phone book these days 


Soal Nomor 6

Soal nomor enam berkaitan dengan penggunaan Quantifier much yang untuk countable Noun dan Quantifier many untuk countable Noun. Kita tahu bahwa "moeny" masuk ke dalam kategori uncountable Noun sehingga penggunaan Quantifier many pada opsi (C) kurang tepat. Kalimat seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


  • Some people with a decent job and income do not have saving because they spend much money on basic necessities such as food and housing   


Soal Nomor 7

Soal nomor tujuh berkaitan dengan penggunaan article "a" dan singular Noun yang sebelumnya sudah kita bahas di soal nomor satu. Karena kata "product" pada opsi (C) masuk ke dalam kategori singular Noun, maka seharusnya ada article "a" yang mendahuluinya. Kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


  • There are several things that we need to consider when buying a product, such as quality, functionality, price and durability 

    

Soal Nomor 8

Soal Nomor delapan berkaitan dengan penggunaan Demonstrative "that" dan "those". Demonstrative "that" digunakan untuk singular Noun, sedangkan Demonstrative "those" digunakan untuk plural Noun. Karena kata "memories" merupakan plural Noun, maka Demonstrative yang seharusnya digunakan pada opsi (D) adalah those, bukan that. Hal ini juga berlaku untuk Demonstrative "this" yang digunakan untuk singular Noun dan "these" yang digunakan untuk plural Noun. Kalimat tersebut secara lengkap ditulis sebagai berikut:


  • When reminiscing about the good old days with friends and family, people can feel nostalgic and find it hard to erase those memories   

 

Soal Nomor 9

Soal nomor sembilan berkaitan dengan penggunaan Article "an" untuk kata berawalan silent h seperti honor, hour dan honesty. Meski pada tulisan honorary terdapat huruf h, huruf tersebut tidak dilafalkan sehingga kata honorary dilafalkan mulai dari huruf o, yang merupakan huruf vokal. Dengan demikian, kita tahu bahwa terdapat kesalahan gramatikal pada opsi (A). Kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


  • An honorary degree is given to those who have given a major contribution to certain field or to the society in general 


Soal Nomor 10

Soal nomor sepuluh berkaitan dengan awalan konsonan yang ada pada kata seperti universal, union, atau university. Meski secara sekilas kata universal pada opsi (D) seperti berawalan dengan vokal u, nyatanya pelafalan kata itu berawalan dengan konsonan y yang tentu saja harus di dahului oleh Article "a". Secara lengkap, kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


  • It is believed that all languages that we know today originate from a universal language 


Demikianlah beberapa contoh soal Structure and Written Expression serta pembahasannya hari ini. Untuk membaca materi sebelumnya, silahkan ikuti tautan berikut ini. Jika ada pertanyaan atau saran, silahkan tulis di kolom komentar.


Untuk update materi TOEFL Structure and Written Expression, klik tautan berikut ini:

Update Materi TOEFL Structure and Written Expression

IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Age

IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Age
Growing Up



IELTS Speaking Section Part 1 - Talking about Familiar Topics

Aging


When you were a child, did you think much about the future?

No, it's the other way around actually. Now that I have been an adult, I'm thinking a lot about my childhood. I was so happy when I was a child, and was never worried of how the future would go. I spent most of my time playing with my friends and studying.


What do you miss the most from your childhood?

The freedom, I guess. As a child, I didn't have to think about work, or bills, or other things that become a burden now that I have grown up. I went to school in the morning, and then play with my friends afterwards, I would study in the evening while watching my favorite TV show. As soon as I finished studying, I would go to bed and sleep so that I have enough energy to have fun again the next day.


What do you think of the fact that some people want to be forever young and are afraid of getting old?

Those people are definitely happy as a young person, they may have a perfect life, and they do not want that perfect life to change. But, I personally think that getting older gracefully is a part of happiness in life. I mean, you can't be working forever, one day you will have to retire and spend most of your time doing what you love instead of doing what you are told to do. When we get older and retire, we also have much more time to spend with family, which is a good thing, especially after years of working hard to save some money.


Do you think you have changed much as you grow older?

Yes, definitely. I used to be a cheerful person who worried about nothing, but now that I have bills to pay, duties to accomplish, and other responsibilities, I sort of become a little less happy than I was several years ago. But, this happens to a lot of adults, I suppose, and not just me. The only thing that makes me less unhappy these days is the fact that I lived my life to the fullest while I had the chance. Now that I am expected to play the role as an adult, I should focus on doing my responsibilities.


Are you happy to be the age that you are now?

Considering the amount of pressure in my life recently, the answer would be no. I've been having what's so-called mid-life crisis and I recently feel like my life used to be much happier than this. But this is just a process that I have to go through, it's not that I'm always and will forever be unhappy. I'm just temporarily unhappy right now.



IELTS Speaking Section Part 2 - Self-Presentation

One of Grandparent's Job




Describe a job one of your grandparents did

You should say:

Whose job was it?

What the job was it?

How did s/he do the job?

Explain what you think about the job




Whose job was it?

It is my grandfather's job. My grandmother did not have a real job because we lived in the rural area where women were usually responsible of the household.

What the job was it?

My grandfather worked as a teak farmer and merchant. Like most people who lived in the countryside, my grandfather had land all over the village. The region where I lived is famous for its teak and lumber mills, and this is why my grandfather used his farmland to plant teak instead of rice or other produces.


Teak plantation is a labor-intensive industry, so my grandfather never worked by himself. He had several workers helping him with cultivation, harvest, and wood processing. The teak is usually sold to big wood processing factories.


How did s/he do the job?

I don't really know how the job was done because I was never involved in it. What I did as a child was delivering my grandfather's lunch to the farm while he was working. But I do remember one of the process of teak plantation, which is the cultivation. I remember hearing the noise made by a chainsaw and the crunchy sound that the dry leaves when I stepped on it. I also remember the smell of wood and wet soil.


Explain what you think about the job

The job was really rough indeed. People have to work among saw dust and noises of heavy machinery. They have to carry the wood on a truck through difficult and dangerous terrain. Things become more complicated when there is an inclement weather that makes it more dangerous to do the cultivation process and transport the wood to the lumber mill.


IELTS Speaking Section Part 3 - Discussion 

Elderly

Can you explain some of the differences between younger generation and older generation?

In terms of hard work, I think older generation generally worked much harder because there wasn't much development and resources back then, at least here in my country. There was no internet, no computer, so older generation needed a lot more effort to learn something. For example, to learn welding and metal work, my uncle had to find someone who had such expertise to teach him, and this was not easy. He had to go to other city to meet his trainer. Younger generation is very lucky to have all the resource like internet, they can learn anything more easily. But the thing is, there are more challenges that young generation has to face these days compared to the previous generation. Life is getting more and more demanding, if they cannot catch up with the current development, they will be left behind.


What are the advantages of having an elderly at home?

We can learn from their patience and wisdom. Older people have gone through a lot of difficult situation in life, and we can learn how they could deal with such challenges. Other than getting important life lessons and wisdom, we can also hear a lot of interesting stories from elderly. I have heard stories about my grandfather fighting during the war for independence, which teaches me a lot about bravery and patriotism. This kind of lesson can only be learned from older generation. 


You mentioned about the fact that younger generation can learn wisdom from elderly. Is there anything that elderly can learn from younger generations?

Yes, of course. I think elderly can learn about the most current situation that may affect them directly or indirectly. For example, during a covid19 global pandemic, older people need to be more careful because they belong to vulnerable group. I think young generation, who have better access to information, need to take care of the elderly and inform them about the danger of the virus, as well as reminding them of the importance of following health protocols.  


Do you think older people should be allowed to work?

I'm not a big fan of discrimination in workplace, and age discrimination is one them, so, yes I think elderly should be allowed to work. But, they shouldn't work if they have health problems, or if the job is too dangerous to be carried out by senior citizens. I have seen a lot of elderly working as a clerk or a food seller and I think it is okay for them to have that kind of job. I have also seen elderly who have an important position in private companies although it is pretty rare these days.


Do you think elderly people should be taken care of at home?

Of course, it is better for elderly to be taken care of at home, so they won't feel lonely and sad. Besides, elder people like to play with their grandchildren and spend most of their time with family. The point is, we have to realize that not all elderly people like to be in an adult day care center, and if this is the case, then it would be better if we take care of the elderly at home. 


Follow this link to read other samples of IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3.

IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Photographs

IELTS Speaking Section Part 1 - Talking about Familiar Topics

Taking Photographs


IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Photographs
Scenery


Do you like taking photographs?

Yes, on occasion. When there's a special moment in my life like graduation or school reunion, I will definitely capture it. But I don't take pictures very often, only on certain occasion do I bring camera and take pictures. Some people may like taking pictures with their phone on daily basis, like when they take pictures of their food, their outfit, or their pets. I don't really use my phone to take pictures.


What kind of photos do you like to take?

I like taking pictures of natural beauty and old buildings. In my country, there are a lot of remnants of past Dutch colonialism like offices, buildings or monuments. I personally like to take pictures of the old Dutch houses because of their unique design and the history behind them. Besides old buildings, I also like taking pictures of mountains, sunset, forest, and the sea.

IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Photographs
An Old Building


How do you become interested in photography?

No, I'm not interested in photography per se. I take pictures mostly just for fun. Sometimes I take pictures because a friend of mine asks me to, like during a school reunion, but it doesn't mean that I'm particularly interested in photography.


Do you prefer taking pictures of people or scenery?

I rather take pictures of scenery. Well, I live in the city and all I see here are shops, traffic, working people, and skyscrapers. Enjoying the nature is not something that I can do everyday, so it always becomes a special moment for me, a moment that is worth to take pictures of. 


Do you prefer taking photos with camera or phone?

Personally, I'd rather take pictures with my phone, because it is much more handy. I liked taking pictures with camera, because a picture taken by phone was not of high quality back then. But now, phone camera has been improved and so is the quality of the picture. There are some additional features and configurations that will enable us to take good pictures.


IELTS Speaking Section Part 2 - Self-Presentation

Photography



Describe a an object that you photographed

You should say:

What was it?

Why did you photograph it?

What do you use the photo for?

How do you feel about that photo?




What was it?

I took a picture of a beautiful sunset when I was transiting in Hong Kong International Airport. I was on my way back from the United States, when I saw this beautiful scenery from the airport terminal. I decided to take a picture of it. I took a picture of the sunset with my phone camera so it wasn't of a good quality. I really enjoy taking pictures of that beautiful view, nevertheless.


Why did you photograph it?

I always like the sunset, especially in places where it looks romantic, such as in beaches on top of a mountain. My favorite sunset is the one that I saw in Kuta, Bali. It was a perfect combination of warm light and waves in the sea that I found extremely addicting.


What do you use the photo for?

I use the picture as a cover photo on facebook. It's still there anyway, the picture is still the best picture I have ever taken, after all these years.

 

How do you feel about that photo?

I feel nostalgic every time I see the photo. I went to United States for a summer school program and in this program, I found a lot of good friends. There was so much fun and memories there. I don't get to see them very often now because we're all busy growing up, but the picture helps me remember the happiness that we had when we were young.


IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Photographs
Beautiful Sunset in Hong Kong



IELTS Speaking Section Part 3 - Discussion

Memorable photos

Do people still keep memorable photos these days?

Some of them do. For example, when people are attending a concert, they like taking pictures to capture the moment. However, there are also some people who would rather enjoy the moment instead of busy taking pictures. Some people like framing photos taken on a special event like graduation or wedding, but there are also people who simply save the photos in digital form.


Have you ever framed a photo?

Not really, no. But, I took a picture with my former girlfriend on my graduation day and she framed it. She gave it to me as a gift. We are no longer together but I decided to just keep it anyway.


Why do some people like to take a photo of themselves while some other people don't?

There are various reasons why people avoid camera. Some people do not really like taking a picture of themselves because they think that there are other things that are interesting to take pictures of, like scenery, or other objects. Some other people do not like taking pictures of themselves for privacy reason or because they are not very confident.


Have you ever attended a photo exhibition?

Yes, but it was a long time ago. I went to a museum owned by one of the biggest cigarette companies in Indonesia. They have a museum that displays the history of the company from the era when cigarettes were produced manually until now when some of the production process already uses machinery. The company still produces cigarettes traditionally because they are committed to being a labor-intensive cigarette producer. The photo exhibition tells us not only about the history and the process of producing cigarettes, but also the mission of the company. 


Have you ever visited where taking photos is prohibited? 

Yes, I have. I visited the Tenement Museum at 103 Orchard Street, New York, and visitors are not allowed to take pictures. I went there for academic purpose anyway, so most of the time I would rather ask some questions, pay attention to what the tour guide said, and take notes .


Why do you think it is prohibited to take photos in that place?

I'm not really sure why they have such rule, but I think it has something to do with the purpose of the visit itself. The visit to the Tenement Museum is always accompanied by a tour guide, who is an expert in history, and visitors are expected to pay attention to their explanation. This is a museum anyway, what's the point of visiting a museum if we are busy taking pictures instead of learning about the history.


Follow this link to read other samples of IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3

Contoh Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan - Degree of Comparison

Contoh Soal TOEFL dan Pembahasan - Degree of Comparison


Pendahuluan

Pada materi sebelumnya, kita sudah membahas soal-soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression yang berkaitan dengan clause, baik itu Noun Clause, Adjective Clause, maupun Adverbial Clause. Hari ini, kita akan melanjutkan materi Structure and Written Expression dan membahas soal-soal yang berkaitan dengan Degree of Comparison. Sebelum masuk ke materi, sobat bisa mengerjakan beberapa contoh soal berikut ini.


Latihan Soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression



Soal Nomor 1

Mount Everest is ____________ mount in the world

(A) highest

(B) the highest

(C) most high

(D) most highest


Soal Nomor 2

Aluminum is _____________ than steel, and is widely used in car manufacturing

(A) as pliable

(B) very pliable

(C) more pliable

(D) the most pliable


Soal Nomor 3

Quitting a bad habit is not as ____________

(A) easy as it seems

(B) easy like it seems

(C) easy than it seems

(D) easy of what it seems


Soal Nomor 4

A journey by plane can ____________ than expected because the flight is delayed

(A) as much long

(B) be much longer

(C) feels much longer

(D) be the longest  


Soal Nomor 5

Saturn is _____________ the earth

(A) much bigger

(B) much more big

(C) much more big than

(D) much bigger than


Soal Nomor 6

Indonesia is a (A) country with (B) the second most highest (C) biodiversity in (D) the world


Soal Nomor 7

A football player who takes (A) a free-kick usually (B) has a (C) higher shooting accuracy to (D) any other players 


Soal Nomor 8

People who just (A) start working out can choose least (B) physically demanding (C) sport so they won't get (D) overwhelmed 


Soal Nomor 9

Some people become extremely (A) successful not only (B) because they are smarter, but also because they work more hard (C) than (D) others


Soal Nomor 10
Because of (A) its (B) beautiful nature and rich cultural heritage, Bali has become (C) one of the famousest (D) islands in the world


Pembahasan

Soal Nomor 1

Soal nomor satu berkaitan dengan aturan penggunaan superlative yang bermakna "paling". Perlu diingat bahwa superlative memiliki bentuk sebagai berikut:



the + (Adj+est) 👉 untuk kata dengan jumlah syllable kurang dari tiga, dan 


the + most + Adj 👉untuk kata dengan jumlah syllable minimal tiga



Kita tahu bahwa terdapat redundancy (penggunaan kata most dan Adjective dengan akhiran -est secara bersamaan) pada opsi (C) dan (D) sehingga dua opsi itu pasti salah. Opsi (A) sebenarnya hampir benar, hanya saja tidak terdapat determiner the yang harus ada dalam bentuk superlative. Jawaban yang paling tepat untuk contoh soal di atas adalah opsi (B). Kalimat tersebut secara lengkap ditulis sebagai berikut:

Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world   


Soal Nomor 2

Soal nomor dua berkaitan dengan penggunaan bentuk comparative, dan hal ini bisa langsung jelas terlihat dari penggunaan kata than yang ada di soal. Dengan demikian, kita tahu bahwa opsi (A) dan (D) salah karena keduanya adalah bentuk positive comparison dan superlative. Opsi (B) juga salaha karena bukan merupakan bentuk degree of comparison. Jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal di atas adalah opsi (C). Secara lengkap, kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


Aluminum is more pliable than steel, and is widely used in car manufacturing 


Soal Nomor 3

Soal nomor tiga berkaitan dengan bentuk positive comparative yang memiliki struktur:


  ...as + Adj + as...


Karena conjunction as pada bentuk positive comparative tidak bisa dikombinasikan dengan like, than maupun of, maka kita bisa langsung tahu bahwa jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal nomor tiga adalah opsi (A). Kalimat tersebut secara lengkap dapat ditulis sebagai berikut:


Quitting a bad habit is not as easy as it seems   


Soal Nomor 4

Pertanyaan nomor 4 berkaitan dengan bentuk comparative, dan hal ini bisa dilihat dari kata than yang ada di soal. Dengan demikian, kita tahu bahwa opsi (A) dan (D) pasti salah. Opsi (C) sebenarnya hampir benar, namun karena Modal can seharusnya diikuti oleh bentuk infinitive feel, bukan feels. Jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal tersebut adalah opsi (B). Secara lengkap, kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


A journey by plane can be much longer than expected because the flight is delayed    


Soal Nomor 5

Karena kata big hanya terdiri dari satu syllable, maka bentuk comparative-nya adalah bigger. Dengan demikian, kita tahu bahwa opsi (B) dan (C) pasti salah. Opsi (A) sebenarnya sudah hampir benar, namun bentuk comparative-nya tidak memiliki than. Jawaban yang paling tepat bagi contoh soal tersebut adalah (D). Kalimat pada soal secara lengkap ditulis sebagai berikut:


Saturn is much bigger than the earth    


Soal Nomor 6

Terdapat kesalahan gramatikal pada opsi (C). Karena kata high hanya terdiri dari satu syllable, maka bentuk superlative-nya adalah highest. Dengan demikian, penggunaan kata most menjadi sebuah redundancy. Kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


Indonesia is a country with the second highest biodiversity in the world  


Soal Nomor 7

Terdapat kesalahan gramatikal pada opsi (D). Bentuk comparative seharusnya menggunakan than, bukan to. Kalimat tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


A football player who takes a free-kick usually has a higher shooting accuracy than any other players  


Soal Nomor 8

Di soal nomor 8, terdapat kesalahan gramatikal yang berhubungan dengan penggunaan bentuk superlative. Seharusnya, bentuk superlative yang digunakan harus lengkap, sementara pada opsi (B), kata the yang seharusnya menjadi bagian dari superlative tidak ada. Seharusnya kalimat tersebut ditulis sebagai berikut:


People who just start working out can choose the least physically demanding sport so they won't get overwhelmed  


Soal Nomor 9

Kata hard hanya terdiri satu syllable sehingga bentuk comparative-nya adalah harder, bukan more hard. Dengan demikian, kita tahu bahwa kesalahan gramatikal ada di opsi (C). Kalimat tersebut seharusnya sebagai berikut:


Some people become extremely successful not only because they are smart, but also because they work harder than others  


Soal Nomor 10

Terdapat kesalahan gramatikal pada opsi (D), di mana bentuk superlative dari kata famous adalah the most famous, bukan famousest. Ada pengecualian bagi aturan degree of comparison dan jumlah syllable. Ada beberapa kata dengan jumlah syllable kurang dari tiga yang harus menggunakan more (comparative) dan most (superlative). Kata famous dan beberapa kata yang berakhiran dengan -ous masuk ke dalam aturan pengecualian ini. Kalimat pada soal tersebut seharusnya ditulis sebagai berikut:


Because of its beautiful nature and rich cultural heritage, Bali has become one of the most famous island in the world  


Demikian materi, latihan dan pembahasan soal-soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression kali ini. Sobat bisa membaca artikel sebelumnya yang berkaitan dengan clauses pada soal-soal TOEFL Structure and Written Expression. Jangan lupa untuk terus update dengan artikel kita, terutama bagi sobat yang sedang butuh banget ambil tes TOEFL tapi masih galau dengan grammar. Jika ada saran, kritik atau pertanyaan, langsung tulis saja di kolom komentar.


Thank you 💓


Untuk membaca artikel sebelumnya, silahkan ikuti tautan berikut ini:

Soal-soal TOEFL dan pembahasan


Update materi selanjutnya bisa sobat baca di sini

IELTS Speaking Section Part 1, 2 and 3 - Talking about Society

IELTS Speaking Part 1, 2 and 3 - Talking about Society
Neighborhood


Today, we are going to discuss IELTS Speaking Section. There will be some sample questions and answers related to topic society. We will discuss part 1, 2 and 3 of the speaking test as well as some tips on how to do the IELTS speaking. We will also discuss some vocabularies related to the topic and some common grammatical mistakes in speaking. Okay, let's start with the first conversation.


IELTS Speaking Part 1 - Talking about Familiar Topics

Neighbors


How well do you know your neighbors?

I don't know them that well, actually. I spend most of my time working and do not really have much time to interact with people living next door, or across the street. Well, the majority of people who live in my neighborhood are working people who have family. They are busy during the day and would rather spend their time with family after work. We only talk when we have free time, like during the weekend. I often talk to a family living next door while they enjoy their free time on Saturday. The father usually washes his car or mow the lawn and we have a small talk. Sometimes I talk to their kids too, but they are kind of shy and not talking too much.


How often do you see them?

Not very often. As I said, both my neighbors and I are busy working. We only have small talk, on occasion, but that's just about it. 


What kind of problem do people usually have with their neighbors?

There are all kinds of problem that we may have with neighbors, but the most common ones would be noises and kids. My neighbors, who live across the street, have a little baby, and the baby often wakes up in the middle of the night. Sometimes, the crying baby also wakes me up at night. I don't mean to be an egoistic and intolerant neighbor or anything, but I have to wake up really early for work and I need get a good night sleep. Besides, I have been developing an insomnia lately, so a crying baby can definitely be a nuisance for people like me. Other than a crying baby, sometimes I see children play in the street. I scolded them once, but the parents didn't take it very nicely. I told them that they need to supervise their little children when playing outside, because they often play in the street without paying attention to the surrounding traffic. This is dangerous for both the children and drivers who happen to pass the street.


How do you think neighbors can help each other?

Neighbors can take care of each other. I often go on a business trip and my neighbors often help me with my cat. They like taking care of the cat while I'm away, and I think it is very nice of them to help me with my pet. Sometimes, I let my neighbors use my parking space when they have a guest, because I have a garage and never park in the drive way.


Have you ever invited your neighbors to your home?

No, not really. But I was invited to a dinner by a new neighbor living next door. She invited those who live next door and across the street for a dinner, she introduced herself to us, and we welcomed her to the neighborhood.


Do you think you are a good neighbor?

Not really, I seldom have the time to interact with my neighbors. I often come home in the middle of the night, and the light from motorcycle head lamp as well as the noises from the engine can wake up my neighbor's baby sometimes, which I feel bad about. I seldom attend events held in the neighborhood because I have works to do. I wish I could participate more in the such event and become a good member of the community.


IELTS Speaking Part 2 - Self-Presentation

Social Change



Describe an important social change that happens in your country

You should say:

What change is it?

How long has it happened/since when did it happen?

Why is it considered important?

Explain how it affects people in your country



What is it?

As an Indonesian, I feel like the economic and social condition is getting better recently. The majority of the people lived in poverty back then, and there was a very low living standard. There was also a gap between the rich and the poor, as wealth was not distributed evenly. Those who lived under the poverty line simply did not have access to education, health services, jobs, and other aspects of life that were needed to live with a good living standard, the least to ascend the social and economic ladder. The society has gone through a long process to become what it is today and I can say that people, in general, live a much better life these days, both socially and economically.


How long has it happened/since when did it happen?

This positive change started after the 1998  reformation. For 32 years, Indonesia was ruled by a dictator. Poverty was so pervasive, especially after economic crisis hit the country in 1998. Resources were owned by few elites within the government body or their private cronies. Corruption was a commonplace. This caused vertical conflict, as there was a skepticism, or even distrust to the ruling government. It also caused horizontal conflict between the haves and the poor, which resulted in some sort of hatred addressed towards the rich and non-natives. Sadly, all of these issues ended up being a bloody reformation in 1998, a painful process that claimed many lives of civilians, especially student protesters.

But there has been a lot of improvement since then. We now live in a democratic country where people have more freedom to express themselves. Transparency and independent judiciary system make sure that people are treated fairly. There is a healthy competition in business. So, life is much better than it was prior to the 1998 reformation. 


Why is it considered important?

Actually, there are some reasons why this change is very important to the people, but I'll give few examples. First of all, there was no free press and free speech prior to reformation. In fact, there wasn't much freedom of any sort because the authoritarian regime ruled the country with iron fist. Try criticizing them, and you will die tomorrow. Media was also pervasively censored to the point where it ended up being the mouthpiece of the government. There were a lot of human right violations those days, people were put in prison without trial, books that were considered dangerous were confiscated by the authority, activists were kidnapped. Well, in general, there wasn't that much civil rights prior to reformation era. This is why 1998 reformation becomes a very important turning point for the people of Indonesia.


Explain how it affects people in your country

The change has brought about some positive impacts. In terms of economic aspect, we can see that wealth is more evenly distributed these days, and this can be seen by the rapid growth of upper-middle class in Indonesia. 

Back then, power and wealth were so concentrated to the government and its cronies. Only people with influence and connection to the government can be successful in business. Now, we can see a lot of companies or startups that were built from scratch by an ordinary person. This has been made possible by a system that encourages entrepreneurship and allows the people to use their potentials and resources to thrive. I'm no expert in economics, but I personally believe that such improvement is only possible when there isn't too much intervention from the government. 


IELTS Speaking Part 3 - Discussion

Talking about social problems


What social problems are there in your country?

Recently, there are a lot of people getting laid off because of the economic impact of the global pandemic. These people have successfully ascended the socio-economic ladder, but now they are extremely anxious, not only about the possibility of second wave of covid19, but also the possibility of second wave poverty. Well, issues related to economy like poverty will eventually lead to social unrest if not handled properly. The high unemployment rate often becomes the reason why crime rate also increases, making the people feel unsafe. The pandemic also makes the low-income household becomes more vulnerable. When both parents are losing their job, it means that the entire family will have to cut expenses. In some cases, frustration resulted from such condition can lead to domestic violence that will definitely be detrimental to the children as well.


You mentioned about poverty. What can be done to alleviate poverty?

First of all, we have to deal with problems in our education system. People are suffering from poverty because they don't have the knowledge and skill needed to join the workforce. This is why we need more education and training. Other than education, there's got to be the spirit of entrepreneurship as well, because entrepreneurs provide jobs for those who need it. Actually, the government has successfully eradicated poverty for the past fifteen years or so, but with all this corona virus stuff going on, there is a possibility that they will have to go back to square one.


What do you think of social charity?

It is a good way of helping people who need medication, or those who suffer from natural disaster. There are a lot of charities in my country, we now even have online crowd funding platform. But, personally, I believe that charity is a way of helping other people, but it's not the ultimate solution for problems related to poverty. To deal with issues of a larger scope like poverty as well as social and economic gap, people will need empowerment more than everything. For example, when we see a young guy suffering from hunger, we can help him by giving him some food, or shelter, but we can't keep feeding that guy expecting him to be a good member of the society. At some point, we have to help him get a decent job so he can make his own living and become an independent, responsible and capable individual. Generally, people do not like being seen as a victim of poverty, or social inequality, what they want is a job that will help them stand on their own feet.


Can you tell me the difference between minor crimes and major crimes?

Of course. Murder is definitely a major crime, especially if it is a premediated murder. People can be charged with death penalty for such crime. But, there are also some differences for minor and major crimes criteria in every country and jurisdiction. For example, the possession of drug may be considered legal in some countries. Even if it is illegal, I think the punishment will not be as severe as here in my country. Here, those who are caught in possession of drug will definitely face imprisonment. In a very serious case like drug smuggling, someone can even get death penalty, so we can say that these drug-related crimes are taken very seriously here. Another crime that is considered as a major crime is terrorism, which is another crime that can result in death penalty. Any other criminal behaviors other than these three will probably fall under the category of minor crimes, or petty crimes.


Some countries have seen urbanization as a problem. Why do you think people are moving to cities?

People go to cities with a hope that they will get a better job, a better life. Some of them are really successful indeed, and such success often leads to a false belief that in order to succeed, one has to move to the city. Now, there are more and more people going to the city not having the educational background required to get a job, nor having any skill that will make them attractive to employers, and this is when the problem starts appearing. 

In cities, living standard is higher than in small towns, but everything is expensive. There are a lot jobs there, but there is a high level of competition as well. Those who cannot survive in the city may end up living in slum area, or becoming a beggar, or even street criminals. It is true that city is the center of trade and administration that offers more job opportunity for the people, but it can also be a harsh place for those who go there unprepared.


Can you explain how overpopulation affect urban society?

Indonesia is notoriously known for its centrality, especially in Java, one of the main islands here. While other regions outside the main island are underdeveloped, Java has become overpopulated. There have been some problems resulted from urbanization. Let's take capital city Jakarta as an example. Because of overpopulation, we can see how the city now deals with traffic, homelessness and crime rate. There are a lot of slum areas in Jakarta, which makes social disparity looks clearer more than ever. We can see a giant supermall or a fancy apartment located near a slum, which makes it iconic and ironic at the same time. There are also some environmental concerns related to overpopulation. For example, the city is finding it more and more difficult to manage its waste, which often leads to other problems such as water pollution and flood. Because of overpopulation, Jakarta is also experiencing a land subsidence at a rate of 1 to 15cm a year according to an expert. It is predicted that the city will sink in 2025 or 2050 if the problem related to overpopulation and centralization persist.  


We have read the sample answer questions and answers for the topic above. Now, let's discuss several aspects that we need to pay attention to when doing the IELTS Listening Section, and let's start with the vocabulary.


IELTS Speaking Section Vocabulary

In some rare cases of IELTS Speaking Section, we may have to deal with technical terms like those related to law. Remember that you can use the most common term possible, unless there's no other alternative for such term. For example, I used the term premediated murder, which may not sound that familiar to some people. Suppose you have never heard of this term before, then you can explain it with your own words. For instance, you can give a definition instead, and say: a murder that is committed intentionally, which is fine. There are some words that have synonyms like death penalty, which is sometimes called capital punishment, or death-sentence, or execution. In this case, you are free to choose which word you want to use, although it would be much better if you do not use it repetitively.


Grammatical Range and Accuracy

You may notice that I said: 

  • I'm no expert in economics...


This sentence may sound strange to you, and you may ask: Isn't it supposed to be:

  • I'm not an expert in economics?


Well, you're right. That sentence is not grammatically accurate, but it is commonly heard in real communication though, so this may (or may not) considered as a slip. In IELTS Speaking Section, sometimes you think very fast and you focus more on the communicative aspect instead of grammatical aspect. This is why slips occur. It's okay, you just have to make sure that you don't think too much of a grammar that you end up wasting your time and not answering the questions at all. But, you also have to avoid recurrent grammatical errors because it will definitely reduce your score for grammatical range and accuracy.

Speaking of grammatical range and accuracy, I will also suggest you to use various grammatical structure, as to not become too dull and repetitive. Try demonstrating your mastery of the English grammar. For example, you may notice that I said:


  • Now, there are more and more people going to the city not having the educational background required to get a job, nor having any skill that will make them attractive to employers...


Pay attention to the underlined words. Here, I am using present participle that functions as a adverbial clause. I also use coordinating conjunction nor. I did this to avoid using repetitive sentence structure. I could have said it this way:


  • Now, there are more and more people going to the city. They do not have educational background required to get a job or the skill that will make them attractive to employers... 


The sentence above is grammatically correct, but I have used the same sentence structure so I tried to say it in a different way.


Basic Knowledge

You may realize that society is a very difficult topic in IELTS Speaking Section, especially when we have to explain things like social disparity, or unequal wealth distribution, or the impact of urbanization on both rural and urban community. You don't have to be an expert to answer these questions, but you definitely need some basic knowledge to be able to do so. Try to read newspaper, watch news on television, be more up-to-date to current issues and try to know more about what's going on around you. You may have a good mastery of mastery of grammar and vocabulary, but if you don't have the basic knowledge related to the speaking topic, then you will find it hard to do the speaking test, and this is just bad.