Descriptive Text - Materi, Contoh, dan Soal Latihan


Descriptive Text - Materi, Contoh, dan Soal Latihan


Materi

Descriptive adalah salah satu jenis teks dalam Bahasa Inggris, yang tujuan penulisannya adalah untuk mendeskripsikan suatu benda, baik itu benda hidup (orang, hewan, atau tumbuhan) maupun benda mati (barang, tempat, atau gagasan). Descriptive text sendiri memiliki beberapa ciri khas, seperti:


Ciri-ciri Descriptive Text
  • Penggunaan Simple Present Tense
  • Jenis teks ini umumnya dimulai dengan penjelasan umum (identification) lalu diikuti dengan deskripsi benda secara mendetail (description) 
  • Menggunakan kata sifat untuk mendeskripsikan


Seperti teks Bahasa Inggris pada umumnya, descriptive text juga memiliki generic structure, yang dapat dijabarkan sebagai berikut:



Generic Structure Descriptive Text

Identification
Di paragraf pertama, kita akan menyebutkan benda apa yang akan kita deskripsikan di tulisan dan memberikan gambaran umum. Jadi, kita akan fokus terlebih dahulu pada pertanyaan what
  • What are we going to explain in this text?

Misal, kita ingin mendeskripsikan kota Jakarta, maka kita bisa menulis paragraf pertama seperti berikut:

Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia. Its official name is the Special Capital Region of Jakarta. The city is located in the northwest coast of Java Island. Jakarta is very crowded and busy. People come from across the Indonesian archipelago to work, so the city is densely populated. 

Description
Setelah memberikan gambaran umum di paragraf pertama, kita bisa memberikan informasi yang sifatnya lebih spesifik. Untuk mempermudah penulisan paragraf selanjutnya, kita bisa membuat kerangka pemikiran terlebih dahulu. Kita akan fokus pada informasi yang relevan dengan topik utama dan menggunakan guideline 5W1H, seperti yang dicontohkan di bawah ini.
  • How does the city look like?
  • What makes the city interesting?
  • Who are residing in the city?
  • Why do the people come to/reside in the city?
  • Where do people usually go (for travel, leisure, work, etc)?
Misal kita akan fokus menjelaskan kota Jakarta pada paragraf kedua, maka kita bisa menulis paragraf kedua seperti berikut:

Like many other metropolitan cities, Jakarta becomes the center of economy and business in Indonesia. The economy is dominated by industrial and service sectors. Big companies, both foreign and national, are attracting people from different regions who are in a search of employment. Other than the center of economy and business, the city also becomes the center of government administration, meaning that the majority of government agencies are located in Jakarta.

Kita bisa memberikan beberapa informasi yang lebih detail tentang Jakarta di paragraf tiga.

Jakarta is notorious for its multiculturalism. The population is made up of people from different ethnicities, languages, and religions. There are hundreds of ethnolinguistic groups in Indonesia, and Jakarta is like a melting pot of this diverse cultures. Compared to smaller cities, Jakarta has more public facilities and better transportation system. It also has famous landmark like Monas (the National Monument), Kota Tua (Jakarta's Old Town), and Fatahillah Square.



Keseluruhan descriptive text tentang kota Jakarta tersebut akan terlihat sebagai berikut:

Contoh Descriptive Text

Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia. Its official name is the Special Capital Region of Jakarta. The city is located in the northwest coast of Java Island. Jakarta is very crowded and busy. People come from across the the Indonesian archipelago to work, so the city is densely populated. 


Like many other metropolitan cities, Jakarta becomes the center of economy and business in Indonesia. The economy is dominated by industrial and service sectors. Big companies, both foreign and national, are attracting people from different regions who are in a search of employment. Other than the center of economy and business, the city also becomes the center of government administration, meaning that the majority of government agencies are located in Jakarta.


Jakarta is notorious for its multiculturalism. The population is made up of people from different ethnicities, languages, and religions. There are hundreds of ethnolinguistic groups in Indonesia, and Jakarta is like a melting pot of this diverse cultures. Compared to smaller cities, Jakarta has more public facilities and better transportation system. It also has famous landmark like Monas (the National Monument), Kota Tua (Jakarta's Old Town), and Fatahillah Square.


Latihan 1

Kita tahu bahwa penggunaan Simple Present Tense adalah salah satu ciri descriptive text. Sekarang, coba temukan tiga kata kerja dalam bentuk Simple Present Tense dari contoh teks di atas, lalu tuliskan artinya!


Contoh

Come = datang

1.                             =

2.                             =

3.                             =



Latihan 2

Selain Simple Present Tense, descriptive text juga menggunakan Adjective untuk menjelaskan benda. Temukan 10 kata sifat yang ada di bacaan dan tuliskan artinya!


Contoh

Official = resmi

1.                             =

2.                             =

3.                             =

4.                             =

5.                             =

6.                             =

7.                             =

8.                             =

9.                             =

10.                           =




Latihan 3

Selain Verb dan Adjective, kita juga bisa menemukan beberapa kata benda (Noun) pada contoh bacaaan di atas. Temukanlah beberapa kata benda dan tentukan jenis kata benda tersebut, apakah masuk ke dalam kategori countable, uncountable, singular, plural, atau proper Noun.


Contoh

Jakarta = Proper Noun

1.                             =

2.                             =

3.                             =

4.                             =

5.                             =

6.                             =

7.                             =

8.                             =

9.                             =

10.                           =

11.                           =

12.                           =

13.                           =

14.                           =

15.                           =

16.                           =

17.                           =

18.                           =

19.                           =

20.                           =



Latihan 4

Tulislah sebuah descriptive text! Silahkan pilih benda apapun yang menarik untuk dideskripsikan, baik itu orang, hewan, tumbuhan, atau tempat.


Paragraph 1 (Identification)

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Paragraph 2 (Description)

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Paragraph 3 (Description)

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



Contoh Descriptive Text

Berikut adalah beberapa contoh descriptive text tentang orang, benda dan hewan.

Describing a Person                                          

I have a very good friend named Andi. We go to the same school and live in the same neighborhood. I have known Andi since elementary school, so we have been friends for more than ten years now.

Andi is very tall, much taller compared to my other classmates. He is almost 2 meters tall, making him extremely noticeable among students of average height. He has an oval face with black hair and brown eyes. Andi likes to trim his hair short, because he is a very tidy person. 

Andi is a very smart and diligent, and he always gets good grades at school. Andi's academic excellence is not the only achievement that he has at school. Andi also becomes a captain in the school basketball team. He really likes playing basketball and always dreams of being a basketball athlete someday. Not only is he tall and agile player, Andy is also a great shooter in the team. He dedicates a lot of effort and time to master this particular skill.

Andy is very friendly and sociable, although he can also be shy at times. He is not particularly into arts, and is always shy every time the teacher tells him to show his drawing or sing in front of the class. He can actually draw and sing, but he is not very confident about his artworks. Andi can also be sad sometimes. One day, he got a spree in his ankle and cannot play with his team due to his injury. My classmates and I tried to cheer him up by attending the match. We could see that Andi could only sit in the bench watching his team play, but he was happy to see us there. He told us that he believes in teamwork and was optimistic that his team would win. Luckily, the team managed to win the match despite Andi's absence.

Describing a Thing                                           

Smartphone is an electronic device used mainly for communication. This device is very sophisticated, and has become an inseparable part of our life. As a communication device, a smartphone can also be used for other purposes, such as entertainment, online payment, camera, music player, and even gaming.

A smartphones usually has touch screen technology, so it does not have keypads, although there are still power and volume buttons. A smartphone runs on an operating system such as android, and usually has a pre-installed apps. Users can install other downloadable apps and store their data in the internal or external memory. When buying a smartphone, people have a lot things to consider, such as the size of its internal memory, ram, processor, graphic, and features.

There are some basic features that can be found in a smartphone, such as phone, messaging, internet browser, and multimedia features such as camera and music player. Users can install other apps that are compatible to their device. Some people like playing games on smartphone. Others install apps that help them with their daily activities, such as online transportation apps, mobile banking, and online payment.

Describing an Animal                                         

Koala is an iconic animal native to Australia. Although it is often called 'koala bear', koala is actually not a bear. It is a marsupial, an animal that has a pouch to carry its offspring. Other than kangaroo, koala is an animal which is closely associated to Australia. It also becomes one of the main attractions to foreign tourists.

Koala has grey and brown fur, rounded nose and small eyes. Its hands and feet have rough pads and claws used to climb a tree. Koala eats eucalyptus leaves and uses the tree as a home. When not eating, a koala usually sleeps. In fact, koalas spend most of their time sleeping. This is because koalas need a lot of energy to digest their low-nutrient diet. Koala is known as a territorial animal, meaning that they will defend their territory from other koalas or other animals. This territory is chosen based on the availability of food and proximity to breeding partners.

Koala once became an endangered species, mostly because of hunting and habitat loss. The habitat loss can be caused by both natural factor like bush fire or human activities like logging and land clearing. Koalas are also threatened by climate change which affects the quality of the eucalyptus leaves. Drought often forces koalas to climb down the trees in a search for water, and this makes them more vulnerable to predators. There have been some efforts to protect koalas and their habitat. 




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